The History of Toyota

Toyota is one of the best car selling companies in the world. TMC (Toyota Motor Corporation) was established in Tokyo, Japan. The company was founded in the year 1937 by a successful businessman – Mr. Kiichiro Toyoda.

The company is a corporation in the Toyota City in Tokyo. Some say that the company is not one of the best companies but the only best and the largest motor making company in the world. Today, there are more than 317,000 people working in this company as its dedicated employees. The world has seen its triumph soon after the World War and the cars that were created by this company were really amazing and there is no doubt about it. It was the year 1934 when Toyota Industries created its first ever product by the name Type A engine which rocked the market of automobiles. Ford and many other well known companies knew that they got their rival and competitor.

The company did not stop creating anything and they kept on creating more and more powerful things without stopping. In the year 1936, Toyota created a history by introducing a new passenger car- Toyota AA. Toyota also has other brands which are very famous worldwide and are known as Scion and Lexus. These cars have great deals and they have majority of their shareholdings in Daihatsu and Hino Motors. Did you know? The company alone holds about 522 subsidiaries, and this makes the company the largest automaker in the world.

Besides making cars, the company also has its wings in other sectors such as financial sector. The name of this branch is Division Toyota Financial Services. This company also plays a crucial role in financial sector and gives loans and financial assistance to the people who are in need of capital. Toyota Group is the largest group of industries in the world.

However, Toyota motors limited has seen a huge loss of about 5 billion US dollars due to internal issues. After the financial crisis that happened due to American people, Toyota lost a lot of shares and stakes and money between the years 2007-2009. The recession that happened in the world was mainly due to Americans who did not pay their loans and taxes back to the country. Japan blamed America for doing such a cheap thing and people of America have gulped the money that other people gave as taxes. After gulping down, they kept mum and the whole world started suffering. Mr. Toyoda was traced quoting, “Americans are selfish, and indeed the world is suffering. God knows when they will think about others other than filling their own stomachs by snatching other’s work”. However, this was rubbished as a rumor but people still do believe that it did affect everyone.

No matter what, Toyota Company still is in demand and people are crazy about the cars!

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History of Meditation

Perhaps as ancient as the Bible itself, the history of meditation has been recorded going back thousands of years. While no accurate data exists on its origination, many speculate on its roots.

The Buddha has been long recognized as an icon in the history of meditation; dating back to 500 B.C. After living a luxurious life in his early years with his father, Siddhartha became familiar with the realities of life outside of his upbringing. He determined that life was mired with sorrow and suffering, and declared abstinence from worldly pleasures to pursue more spiritual goals. Upon discovering that the opposite end of the scale he chose was not the answer to end life’s suffering, he instead traversed to the middle ground between luxury and asceticism. Siddhartha was 30 years old when he found “enlightenment”, or Nirvana; a heightened level of awareness attained through meditation. He spent the remainder of his lifetime teaching his methods to many people, gaining a following of thousands of individuals.

Teachings from the Buddha spread through the Eastern world in many different forms. Since there was no formal set of guidelines, the adoption of the teachings in diverse areas branched out to form many doctrines over the next 400 years. Even so, several thousands of years still passed before the Western world learned of the history of meditation and all of its principles.

Researchers who have spent years studying the history of meditation have also learned that its practice was documented by Indians, although called Tantra by these people. Historical theories include that meditation and varying states of consciousness were achieved by ancestral people who would focus on flames in campfires, transcending their thoughts into ideals and plans of action.

Meditation as it exists today also takes many forms; likely through its loose formation and development in early years after the Buddha’s teachings ceased. Each variation is as valuable and effective for its followers as the next, serving to balance emotional and physical energies of the body and mind. The history of meditation has evolved into a technique that can help people sleep, overcome depression, eliminate stress and anxiety and achieve overall peace of mind. It has also been essential in assisting individuals in conquering illnesses such as smoking, weight, drug issues and alcoholism. For many, meditation is a means of dealing with the everyday pressures that the world imposes; centering them and helping them to regain composure and joy in their life.

While it is true that no one knows how far back the history of meditation extends, it is known that the art has developed over time into one of the most practiced techniques in the world. Books, lectures, seminars and classes that teach the methods of meditation are available to all who seek inner peace; the same goal sought by millions throughout the history of meditation.

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History of Spices

Spices are the food seasonings that come from the different parts of a plant like the buds, the bark, the fruits, the flowers, the roots, the seeds, and the stems. These spices have played a very important part in the development of the Western civilization. In ancient and medieval times, Spices were rare and precious. To look at the history of spices is to look at the history of civilization as we know it.

Today, spices play a major role in any cooking endeavor – they are used for their fragrance, their flavor and their taste. They also have a number of medicinal properties.

The first recorded documentation of the use of spices as medicines is found amongst the documents of the ancient Sumerians. This was over five thousand years ago. Over four thousand years ago, we have records that the Chinese also used over 300 different herbs and spices for medicinal reasons. Over three thousand years ago, ancient Egyptians used spices for a variety of purposes, including embalming mummies.

The Greeks and the Romans have also used spices for a variety of reasons. The Greeks used laurel leaves in the form of a wreath worn on the head to honor their heroes. The Romans used herbs for magic and sorcery.

From the middle ages onwards, herbs began to be cultivated even in the western parts of the world. But prior to that, trade was the only means of obtaining these spices. Hence these spices were often considered to be very precious and were quite valuable as trade goods.

From around 3000 BC to 200 BC, the Arabs were the prime traders of spices in the western world. The Romans took over the trade and were controlling it till about 1200. From 1200 to 1500, the Europeans explored different routes to the Eastern parts of the globe and began to take over the spice trade. The period between the 15th to the 17th centuries even saw wars break out for the control of the spice trade.

The period between the 16th to the 18th century saw the English explore and control the spice trade. After this period, the Americans also entered into the spice trading community.

Thus, one can see that the history of spice has always been a history of control, of power and of wealth. Spice has proved to be the number one commodity of trade that has made a lot of difference in the lives of many people – especially in the way we eat food – simply because it just tastes better with a little bit of spice! provides the opportunity to research and request free information from baking degrees and pastry arts degrees for potential students looking to start or expand their career in the culinary arts.

History of Jets

A jet airline is simply termed from the propulsion of a jet engine rather than older model propeller type planes. Jets also achieve maximum efficiency at higher altitudes rather than propeller models. History of how the jet airliner came into existence is an interesting background that explains how jets have come to be the most popular form of quick, long distance travel.


The jet prototype was first laid out in writing by Frank Whittle of Britain. He was an officer in the British Air Force and proposed his idea to superiors. The idea did not come into play until the late 1930’s when the Germans took off on the idea of jets and jet propulsion. The British later recognized the idea as beneficial to war efforts and designed their first model in 1941.


It was the Germans who first brought an operational model, called the Messerschmitt Me 262, into the air. It was introduced during World War II as a turbo jet for fighting, bombing, and interception of enemy aircraft. Soon thereafter, the Germans improved on their technology and introduced a faster, rocket fueled jet named the Messerschmitt Me 163.


Throughout the years, British, Germans, and Americans have improved on jet technology. Jets have become a main source of transportation for traveler needs. Commercial jets allow for transportation to different continents within hours. Don’t want to drive a few hours to a neighboring city? Hop on a jet to get you to your destination in merely an hour or two. Commercial jets such as jumbo jets are large cities in the sky. They provide multiple decks containing amenities to help weary travelers through long flights.


Modern jets cruise at speeds almost the same as sound. The term “mach” is used to measure the speed of jets. Sound travels at approximately 420 to 580 miles per hour. The speed of jets is denoted by the percentage of the speed of sound. Most jets travel at .75 to .85 mach, or more specifically 75% to 85% that of the speed of sound. Interestingly, jets that travel faster than sound are seen before they are heard.


The fastest jet to date is NASA’s unmanned X-43. With mach speed of 9 to 10, this black bullet traveling at hypersonic speeds is appropriately named scramjet. Its initial goal was to achieve speeds greater than mach 7. The goal was well exceeded in 2001 when its first flight was launched at mach 9.


Finally, one of the most notable jets to date is NASA’s space shuttle. This jet’s engine exemplifies technology by propelling men into space. The power needed to push such a large, massive jet into space is astronomical. The solid rocket boosters of the space shuttle jet provide twelve million Newtons of thrust at liftoff. A unique advantage to these boosters is that they are reusable. Once the space shuttle jet has been propelled into a high altitude, they drop off the jet, deploy parachutes, and safely land into the ocean where NASA recovers them for use in future space missions.


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History Of The RCIA

RCIA The return of the Catechumenate

When trying to put together a solid timeline of the Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA), you have to go back to the early church at the point when the 12 Apostles were in charge of it, directly. They would go though the towns and countries spreading the Good News and would come upon small communities where individuals would come together in small groups and study the works of Jesus. They would communally work on the call ot conversion. This was being done at a time when persecution was very common place and most of the participants in this knew they faced and their conversion would demand possible martyrdom.

After the first 100 years of the church the conversion process and the Initiation process began to have some form to it. This was the very beginning of the catechumenate, a process that is still used to this day. The conversion of Gentiles was very comprehensive as to make sure that each person understood the Judeo Christian culture, teachings and history. St. Justin spoke on this and it was followed in the Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus.

As we moved to the 3rd and 4th centuries, the process had developed into a three year program. During this time Constantine made Christianity legal in 315 and that saw large numbers of candidates start into the process, however, the system was not fully developed and had very little control over it. By the 5th century the catechumenate began to go by the way side. The need for conversion in Europe was no longer needed as frequently and may children were being baptized as infants.

The lack of a Catechumenate caused both the Dominican Order, named for St Dominic and the Augustinians, named for St. Augustine to both start the process to re establish the catechumenate. They did not like the practice of baptisms occurring during mass. In 1538 there was an Episcopal conference. During this conference these two groups asked that the pastors return to the missionary principles and return to missionary principle of the early church and reestablish the catechumenate. It was unsuccessful. The process stayed as it was all the way up through the early 20th century.

In the early 1900s there was a revival moment to re-add the Catechumenate to the process of conversion. In France there were many problems because of the number of non practicing Catholics. And in African, it was very apparent that they were working in a missionary capacity and needed to build the Catholic Church from the ground up just as the early Christians did by going to small communities.

Whether the success of the French and African programs or just the recognition that working within small groups makes for a more successful situation, Vatican II took up the cause of the Catechumenate, and called for it to e reinstated. The Bishops by overwhelming majority reinstated and restored the catechumenate. The vote was 2,165-9-1. By 1966 a temporary rite was handed out to all the parishes outlining the process and a secondary version was handed out in 1969 and by 1972 the Catechumenate was back and instated in parishes and by 1986 the US Bishops were mandating that this rite be implemented in ALL US Parishes and gave a nation plan of how to do it. By 1988 it was completely in place.

From 1988 though present the process has been evolving. In 2000 the Bishops again visited the subject only to find that may parishes were not really fleshing out the program . But despite the tepid reception of the program and its installation, the Bishop to date have refused to change the program. They feel it is very important to the community for conversion of the entire parish.

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The History of Soy

The soybean has a long history and a very long journey through out the world. This journey, lasting almost 27 centuries, changed the world that we know today. Soy products feed a large part of nearly every country’s inhabitants, as well as various non-edible uses. The soybean was first cultivated by the Chinese. It then spread further throughout China and to other countries around it. Some time after the domestication of the soy plant, Europeans too learned about the uses of the soybean and they started to grow it. Much later, with a hand from Benjamin Franklin, the soybean made it’s journey to America. The soybean has had a lengthy journey, and one that has effected the whole world.

Soybeans were first used as early as the 11th century BC by the Chinese. Soybeans were honored by the ancient Chinese and the emperor Sheng-Nung named it as one of the five sacred plants. Included with soybeans rice, wheat, barley, and millet. Soybeans were used in this early civilization both as food and also as a medicine. Perhaps the soybean actually helped cure sicknesses because of the vitamins that it contains. Centuries after the soybeans were being used by the Chinese, they were domesticated and it is now said that they could be one of the first crops ever to be grown by humans. It wasn’t long after this when the rest of the world learned about the benefits of the soybean.

Hundreds of years after the Chinese first discovered the uses of the soy bean and the domestication of the soy plant, other parts of the world started using the soy bean too. By the first century countries such as Korea started using the soybean. Soybeans also became more widely used throughout china and had spread to Central and southern china. It want until the 7th century when many other countries started using the soy bean such as Japan, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Burma, Nepal and northern India. Soy was commonly used as an ingredient in the early ages of it’s history and was used to make tofu, miso, and tempeh. Meanwhile the other European countries still were still not using the unfamiliar bean.

Long after Asia had started using the soybean, in the 17th century, Europeans started using the bean that they had seen in travels to Asia. Yet, even then all they did was import soy sauce from China. Finally by the 18th century soybeans were being grown in European countries. Much later, the first soy plant touched American territory. In 1770 Benjamin Franklin sent his friend, a botanist, seeds of a soybean. Unfortunately Franklin’s attempt was unsuccessful to spark the interest of America. The true time when soybeans were finally introduced into America was when a ship full of soy plants used as ballast landed at a dock. A few farmers interested in the plant decided to try and grow them, at last the soybean was being grown in America. Since 1929 the soybean crop has increased form 9 million bushels to over 2.8 billion bushels.

In America soybeans began to flourish flourish, on the farms and on the markets. In 1904 George Washington Carver a famous chemist discovered that soybeans contain large amounts of protein and oil. Later on in 1919 William Morse helped found the American Soybean Association. Henry Ford known for making automobiles made a car with all of the plastic made from soybeans! However it wasn’t truly until the 1940’s when Soybean farming rocketed.

Soy has a long history and despite it’s long journey,it still can not rest, for even today, people are still finding new uses for soybeans.

About the Author

Francesca Black works in marketing at Organic Items and Pilates Shop leading portals for organic products and natural excercise.

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African Cuisines – A Concise Writeup On South African Culinary And Its History

South Africa is blessed with a wide collection of delicacies. The culture of SA is rich and diverse and this shows in their ample array of cuisines. The soil by itself is great for plants and the fantastic environment and sunshine helps them thrive.

South Africa is known as the “Rainbow Nation”, a phrase coined by Desmond Tutu, the Archbishop and soon after popularized by the President Nelson Mandela, which defines the diversity of the country’s people and cultures. This variety is also reflected on South African cuisine, that includes cookery practised by native people including the Khoisan, Sotho and Xhosa speaking people, settler cooking introduced by Afrikaner people and British descent, the culinary of the Cape Malay folks (people who settled from Indonesia and Malaysia. Then there is the cuisine of people of Indian descent (motivated by Indian cuisine). Furthermore, South African cuisine has adopted influences from that of bordering countries, and this is clearly evident in a few recipes that possess traces of Portuguese cuisine – Angola and Mozambique both having been former Portuguese colonies.

A few popular South African dishes include:

– Biltong – Salty, dried meat (chicken, beef or even ostrich), related to jerky.

– Bobotie – Bobotie is a Cape Malay dish that is similar to meatloaf with raisins, and laced with baked egg on top. The dish is offered with different side dishes such as sambals, yellow rice, coconut, banana slices and chutney.

– Frikkadel – Meatballs with eggs, bread, spices & onions.

– Mealie bread – A sweetened bread baked with sweetcorn.

– Potjiekos – A stew with vegetables, meat, rice or potato, with wine or water added. Fruits or pasta are sometimes added.

– Sosatie – A Cape Malay dish consisting of mutton marinated with onions, chillies, curry leaves, garlic and tamarind sauce, placed on skewers and later grilled or fried.

– Tomato bredie (Afrikaans: Tamatiebredie) – Mutton stew, seasoned with chillies, cardamom, cloves, cinnamon and ginger.

– Waterblommetjiebredie – Meat stewed using Cape Pondweed flowers.

– Vetkoek – Dough, filled with ground (minced) meat, mixed with syrup and honey, and later deep-fried.

– Malva Pudding – An apricot-flavored sponge-like dessert.

– Melktert – Melktert is Afrikaans for “milk tart”. This dessert consists of a pastry crust containing a rich filling made from flour, milk, eggs and sugar. Cinnamon is at times sprinkled on the surface.

For more details on some great African recipes please visit African Recipe. You may also have a peek at Pakistani cooking by visiting Pakistani Recipe

African Foods ? A Brief Commentary On South African Culinary And Its History

South Africa has an expansive range of food. South African culture is diverse and rich and this shows in their wide array of foods. The soil by itself is great for crops and the great environment and sunshine makes them thrive.

South Africa is called the “Rainbow Nation”, a phrase stated by Desmond Tutu, the Archbishop and soon adopted by the President Nelson Mandela, that smybolizes the range of the country’s culture and people. This variety is also spilt on to the South African cuisine, which encompasses cooking practised by indigenous people including the Khoisan, Xhosa and Sotho speaking people, settler cuisine devised by the people of Afrikaner and British origin, the culinary of the Cape Malay folks (those who came from Malaysia and Indonesia. Then there is the cuisine of people of Indian descent (influenced by Indian cuisine). Furthermore, South African cuisine has taken influences from that of nearby countries, and this is clearly evident in a few dishes that hold traces of Portuguese cuisine – Angola and Mozambique both have been former Portuguese colonies.

Some famous South African delicacies include:

– Biltong – dried, salty meat (beef, chicken or even ostrich), related to jerky.

– Bobotie – Bobotie is a dish from Cape Malay that is similar to meatloaf with raisins, and laced with baked egg on top. The dish is served with a variety of accompaniments such as sambals, yellow rice, coconut, banana slices and chutney.

– Frikkadel – Meatballs with eggs, bread, onions and spices.

– Mealie bread – A sweetened bread baked with sweetcorn.

– Potjiekos – A stew containing meat, vegetables, rice or potato, with wine or water added. Pasta & fruits are sometimes added.

– Sosatie – A Cape Malay dish consisting of mutton marinated with onions, chillies, curry leaves, garlic and tamarind sauce, placed on skewers and later grilled or fried.

– Tomato bredie (Afrikaans: Tamatiebredie) – Mutton stew, seasoned with cardamom, chillies, cinnamon, cloves and ginger.

– Waterblommetjiebredie – Meat stewed using Cape Pondweed flowers.

– Vetkoek – Dough, filled with ground (minced) meat, mixed with honey and syrup, and later deep-fried.

– Malva Pudding – An apricot-flavored sponge-like dessert.

– Melktert – Melktert is Afrikaans for “milk tart”. This dessert consists of a pastry crust possessing a creamy filling made from milk, flour, eggs and sugar. Cinnamon is sometimes scattered on the surface.

For more details on some great African recipes please go to african recipes. You may also take a peek at Pakistani recipes by visiting Pakistani Recipe

History Of Gucci

A Modest Beginning

Its hard to believe that such a prestigious international fashion icon had such humble beginnings! In 1906, Guccio Gucci started a small saddlery shop in Florence, Italy. Born into a family with a history of leather making, Guccio was a talented leather craftsman with an eye for European design flair.

Guccio started out designing leather horseman bags during the days of horse-drawn carriages. As the modes of transportation evolved, he eventually expanded his offerings to include premium leather luggage. It wasnt until 1938 that the first Gucci retail shop opened its doors in Rome on the Via Condotti. Many of the original products sold at that first shop were handcrafted by Guccio himself.

Growth of a Fashion Legend

The universally recognizable leather Gucci bag with its bamboo handle was first introduced to the fashion world in 1947. Several years later, the brands distinctive red striped webbing became another of its hallmarks. The 1950s was a banner decade for the Gucci brand, during which Guccio developed many of the timeless classics that remain popular today. In addition to legendary handbags, he continued to craft luxury travel pieces, footwear, ties, and other accessories.

When founder Guccio Gucci died in 1953, his sons capitalized on his stellar reputation by opening stores in several prominent cities throughout the country, including Beverly Hills, Paris, Palm Beach, London, and Tokyo. Throughout the 1960s, the brand enjoyed celebrity-endorsed prominence as such notable figures as Audrey Hepburn, Grace Kelly, Peter Sellers, and Jackie Kennedy were seen wearing Gucci handbags and apparel. Rodolfo Gucci even designed the custom Flora foulard especially for Grace Kelly. The famous GG logo was developed to commemorate the memory of founded Guccio Gucci, and continues on as the companys trademark today.

Turbulent Times

In spite of the fashion houses prestigious image and international brand recognition, internal conflict and mismanagement threatened the companys welfare. The Gucci family was notorious for their heated debates, clashing personalities, and rash business decisions. By the late 1970s, the fashion house was dangerously close to bankruptcy. One of the brothers, Maurizio Gucci, eventually sold the struggling business to Investcorp, a holding company, in 1993.

A New Beginning

It wasnt until the 1990s, when Tom Ford was named Guccis new CEO, that the fashion house enjoyed a resurgence of its original popularity and prestige. Fords chic new collection in 1995, combined with the pop-culture appeal of celebrity endorsements by the likes of Madonna and Drew Barrymore, helped the brand regain its sense of exclusivity. Today, Gucci is a publicly traded company with a diverse array of designer Gucci handbags, luggage, wallets, sunglasses, apparel, colognes, and footwear, among other offerings.

Save Hundreds with High-Quality Replica Gucci Purses

While a genuine Gucci handbag, Gucci wallet, or Gucci sunglasses can cost well into the hundreds of even thousands of dollars, you dont have to abandon the dream of incorporating chic Gucci style into your ensemble. Todays high-quality replica Gucci purses and accessories offer the same careful design and long-lasting durability of the original, offered at significantly lower prices that wont bust your budget. At Top 1 Handbags, our meticulous replica Gucci handbags are virtually indistinguishable from the real thing.

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History Of Portland

The city of Portland is the largest city of US. It has quite a vast and interesting history. This article will give a brief history of Portland. The people that came to Lake Superior were the French in 1622; however, no settlement took place. It was in 1668 that on the mission to Sault that the French missionaries laid eyes on the city and considered it to be a place where people can live. The first settlement that settled in Portland was in 1701, which comprised of the French people. By 1715 the French had established the Fort Michilimackinac to make a stand against the British army. However, the independence was short lived an in 1760 the French surrendered the fort to the British, and thus the French rule came to an end. In 1763 the city came under siege by the Indian however, the Indians were unable to capture it. The British continued to rule the city till 1796 after which they evacuated the city and abandoned their posts on the Great Lake.

Till 1805 nothing happened in the city, however in 1805 the Michigan Territory was created with Portland as its capital. The condition of the city worsened and till the war of 1812 the city came under the British control again. The war continued till 1813, when the American won the battle and the city came back under their rule again. In 1828 the territorial capital was built at Portland for a cost of $ 24,500. Till 1841 no new major developments were made, however 1841 the University of Michigan was moved from Portland to Ann Arbor, then in 1842 mining operation started in Portland which attracted a lot of settlers to come and settle in to the city. The mining industry and population continued to grow as iron ore were also found in 1844. In 1855 the first ship canal was opened which promoted trade and people to come to the city. Things remained under control till 1862, however in the next year 1863 civil war broke out through out the city which lasted for two years before the situation came back under control. In 1877 a 7.1 mile long rail road was laid down in claret country that contributed to the economic growth.

In 1896 the first gas operated car was driven by Charles King of Portland. By 1920 Portland was broadcasting its first radio station which could be heard through out the city. The industry and economy was on the rise in the city of Portland starting from late 1890s till 1915. During these years many new industries were built and the economy of Portland boosted.
After the 1920s the population of Portland continued to rise as immigrants started to come and settle here. During the rest of the 20th century the inter city conflicts also continued to rise, however they were brought under control by the prevailing government. Along with that many developments also took place. In 21st century 2001 Portland celebrated its 300th anniversary.

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