Grantham History

The Spotted Cow began life as a beer house, before being re-built in its present form to become a Public House, at the turn of the 20th century.  The property eventually received its full license after The Artichokes Inn on Swinegate was closed in 1921.  The property received heavy damage during World War II after a Nazi bomb exploded in the street outside, causing damage to the front windows and removing most of the roofing tiles.  John Smiths Brewery bought the property is 1971 from Warwick & Richardson Brewery of Newark.  Circa 2002 it became an Indian Restaurant before being bought in a dilapidated state in December 2008 by Ian Carroll Limited, builder in Lincolnshire , with the intention of converting the property into two high grade offices and two luxury apartments.


The property at the present moment is undergoing extensive renovation, though it is to be noted that the external features as far as possible are going to be in keeping with what the property was like during the middle of its life.  However the internals of the property will be modified to incorporate two offices on the ground floor and two apartments on the first floor.  Allow us to begin firstly by considering the external façade of the property.


To try and maintain the property to be in keeping with what it was like previously historical research was undertaken.  Surprisingly, even with it being a social hub in the Southern end of Grantham, very few photographs could be obtained, and very few facts about the property could be found, the most being summarised in the introduction of this article.  However from the photographs that was found at least one was of value.  Firstly the chimneys were removed to aid in maintenance of the property in later years, but also more importantly they were of value as the bricks were saved, and used to make good any alterations to the external of the property.  The original roof tiles were removed and the entirety of the pitched roof section re-felted and battened.  The next major step in the project was the choice of roof tile that was to be used to re-tile the roof.  Here again major effort was inputted.  The choice was narrowed down through the reasons outlined previously, leaving a replacement clay tile as the only choice.  Today only two major tile companies still manufacture the modern alternative to the original clay tile, Sandtoft and Marley Eternet.  The main deciding factor between these companies was that one choice had colour consistency through out the tile, therefore this was chosen.  To be in keeping with Public House tradition and to also highlight the building from those surrounding it, a mixture of single camber red smooth clay tiles and four rows of red smooth clay club tiles in the middle, run through the entirety of the roof.  The ridge tiles again were specifically chosen to highlight the building, these being two hole crested ridge, these being chosen to offset the loss of the chimneys.  The rainwater gutters and down pipes were replaced like for like with similar cast iron products.


The external woodwork of the building was another key issue.  With the frontage of the building sporting mock Tudor façade to the top half of the property, obviously some of these beams needed replacement.  Again in keeping with the originality of the property these replacements were custom made in Oak to the original sizes.  The fascia boards also were replaced where needed.  However one of the main focal points of the property was also in need of replacement, these being the large finials to the tops of both gable ends at the front.  Once removed it was soon realised that these weren’t to the original design as seen in the photos found.  Therefore new finials were custom made in Oak to match as closely as possible the design as seen in the photographs.


The external rendering of the building was also in poor condition in some areas, here the rendered panels were chopped off and replaced with products to match the original as close as possible. 


Another main feature of the building was that of the windows.  The original were of a wooden construction.  Here uPVC products were considered for fitting, but soon dismissed as not in keeping with the spirit of the building.  Therefore it was decided that new custom made windows would be used manufactured out of Sapelli.  The windows to the entirety of the property were to match the design of the windows to the front elevation.  However building regulations also needed to be taken into account through out the design process of the windows, this being that the windows had to open far enough for escape in the event of a fire.  26mm double glazed units are fitted to meet current energy efficiency ratings and also Georgian bars are incorporated into the top panels of the windows, again to mirror the heritage of the building.


The front and side elevations of the property are decorated to be a light colour and the woodwork again to be black at this present moment in time. 


Allow us now to consider the internal aspects of the project.  As stated previously the use of the property is to be changed from that of a public building into two private apartments and two offices.  Here at the beginning of the project, all the existing electrical systems were stripped out to make ready for four new electrical services, each to cater for the use of each sub-dwelling.  The existing plumbing system was also removed to make way for four new plumbing systems, consisting of mainly of hot and cold water feeds to all four sub-dwellings.  It needs to be mentioned at this stage that wiring is also incorporated to allow for remote key-fob locking on all external doors and also remote video entrance system for the apartments to the first floor.


The layout of the internals is greatly changed from that previously.  The most notable one being the re-positioning of the staircase to the first floor, so that the most space efficient layout could be used in both the apartments and offices below.  The walls between both the offices down stairs and also the apartments upstairs also had to be re-designed in accordance with the current fire regulations.  A fire break had to be incorporated in the roof between the two apartments, to stop the spread of fire through the roof void, but also the wall between the two offices had also to be designed with this in mind.  Stud walls to both floors are also installed to gain the desired layout shape of the property.  Once this was in place all external walls were re-plastered, stud walls boarded and skimmed, and the ceilings double boarded and skimmed also. 

Suspended ceilings are also to be installed in the office spaces


Both apartments are to incorporate new bathrooms, including floors being tiled and all walls being tiled from floor to ceiling, as well as kitchens being fitted to a modern design. 

The offices are to have suspended ceilings to gain a more professional feel to the spaces, storage space for all office essentials, male and female toilets, disable accessible toilet facilities, kitchen fitting in Grantham, all new computer cabling by Grantham Electrician


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History Is Now

Imagine that you are a woman born in a country where war has been going on for 22 years. Your parents are poor, illiterate peasants. As you grow up, a dozen people you know starve every winter. On many days, you have to go hungry yourself.

You visit the only old man alive in your village and you ask him questions. “Was life always like this? Was there a time when things were better?” The old man tells you that, years ago, before invaders arrived, there was peace and freedom.

On your eighteenth birthday, your village is attacked. Your older sister is raped and killed before your eyes, but you manage to escape. That’s the day when you decide that you want to change the world. If only you knew how.

That night, you have nightmares about your sister. You wake up in the dark with your body trembling with fever. Then you close your eyes again, praying that you die before dawn.

Suddenly, you see a light above you. Did you fall asleep again? Is this another nightmare? You hear a voice call your name. Who is that? The voice tells you that you, Jeanne, will end the war.

“I am going to set our country free,” you announce to your parents the next morning. They shake their heads and tell you to drink your milk. After doing your chores, you walk to the village church and explain to the priest that you, Jeanne, are going to end the war.

The village priest doesn’t listen to you and tells you to go home, but you cannot be stopped. The next day, you walk to the nearby garrison and ask to see the commander. You tell him that you know how to liberate the country and put an end to the war.

At the beginning, the commander calls you foolish and laughs at you, but the fury in your eyes makes him stand still. “Take me to the King,” you demand. “He will listen to me.”

A week later, you arrive at the King’s castle escorted by four knights. “Who is this girl?” the King asks dismissively, looking at your dirty ragged clothes. “Is she coming here to beg?”

“My name is Jeanne, Sire,” you reply, “and I am the one who will end the war.” You hear mocking comments behind your back, but your determination has made the King curious. “I am the one who will set our country free,” you continue. “I have come to ask you to give me an army.”

“Send her away,” the court advisers whisper to the King. “She is just a crazy girl.” The King nods to a guard, instructing him to throw you out of the castle. That’s when you raise your voice. “If you don’t do as I tell you, Sire, the country will be lost and you will be dead before the end of the year.”

Astonished by your boldness, the guard turns to the King and asks if you are to be punished for uttering a threat. You stand alone, undaunted, in the middle of the room, waiting for the King’s answer.

“What if she is telling the truth?” wonders the King. He knows very well that his situation is desperate. Orleans, his remaining bastion, is about to fall to the invaders. After some hesitation, he gives you a hundred soldiers, his reserve troops, mostly middle-aged men.

You and your men march towards Orleans and scurry inside during the night. At dawn, you see rats in the streets. Nobody is bothering to bury corpses any more, since there are just too many. Those who are still alive have given up all hope.

“My name is Jeanne,” you shout as you climb on a wagon in front of the church. “I have come to set Orleans free and end the war.” Wounded, hungry men and women begin to congregate around the wagon. “Who is that girl?” they ask themselves. “What is she talking about?”

The next days, Orleans citizens mobilize their last energies. Stones are taken from every house in order to be used as projectiles for the catapult. Every piece of wood is turned into arrows. Boys pick up swords, women heat up oil. Whatever food is left is shared amongst all.

The decisive battle takes place on the tenth day after your arrival. Everybody able to stand on his feet takes up position behind the parapet that defends Orleans. The bastion doors open and the invaders watch in awe how a girl is leading the defenders outside, ready to fight.

During the next seven hours, defenders turn into attackers. Arrows and stones on fire decimate the invader’s army. What seemed unbelievable, happens. The citizens of Orleans crush their enemies. By the end of the day, invaders retreat from the area.

In 1428, Jeanne of Arc, an eighteen-year old girl, turned around a desperate situation and changed the course of History. Was her vision a hallucination caused by high fever? We know little about Jeanne’s vision, but everything about her determination.

Are you sceptical? Do you think that the story of Jeanne of Arc has no application to your life? “Crises of the past are long gone and our current problems are different,” I hear you argue. “We can not live in old History.” I fully agree. It’s up to us to write our own.

See John Vespasian’s blog

John Vespasian has lived in New York, Madrid, Paris, and Munich. His stories reflect the values of entrepreneurship, tolerance, and self-reliance. See John Vespasian’s blog at

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history of tea

Discovered in China, tea has exerted a profound influence on societies and cultures throughout the world. The tea story begins in China around 5,000 years ago. the legendary Emperor of China and inventor of agriculture and Chinese medicine was drinking a bowl of boiling water some time around 2737 BC when a few leaves were blown from a nearby tree into his water, changing the color. As a scientist, the emperor became intrigued by the liquid, drank some, and found it very appetizing and was pleasantly surprised by its flavor and restorative properties. He immediately gave the command that tea bushes to be planted in the gardens of his palace.

Thus the custom of brewing fresh tea leaves in hot water began and it quickly spread. After the creation of tea, consumption spread throughout the Chinese culture. In 800 A.D. Lu Yu wrote the first book on tea, the Cha Ching. His work was so explicit and complete that it projected him into near sainthood within his own lifetime. Tea production in China, historically, was a laborious process, conducted in distant and often poorly accessible regions. This led to the rise of many apocryphal stories and legends surrounding the harvesting process.

Until the fifth century A.D., tea was primarily used as a remedy, due to the medicinal benefits attributed to it. From this time onwards, China’s upper class adopted the fashion of presenting packages of tea as highly esteemed gifts and of enjoying drinking tea at social events and in private homes. At around the same time the Chinese tea ceremony began to develop and the tidings of tea began to spread as it reached Japan.

Advent of tea in the west

Tea arrived in Europe via Dutch and Portuguese sailors at the beginning of the 17th century. The tea trade was a significant factor in establishing connections between east and west. In China, tea leaves were used as a substitute for coins. In Europe, tea was used as a symbol of high status and as a stimulus for many technological developments. The locals had to make do with tea dust to make their brew. Finding the flavor strong, they experimented with milk and spices, sugar etc. thus their was a whole new evolution to the methodology adopted for the preparation of tea

At the beginning of the 18th century, tea arrived in Northern America, quickly becoming a desirable drink there as well. However the British later levied taxes on the tea commodities which greatly angered the general public. They exposed their frustration in the form of demonstrations and boycott movements that denied the ships carrying the tea items unload. One famous case was that which occurred in Boston, where a group of locals boarded one of the cargo ships and threw all their shipments into the sea. This famous occurrence in this regard was named the “Boston Tea Party”

A significant rise in tea consumption resulted from the appearance of tea bags at the beginning of the 20th century. With the various varieties of tea discovered, it is only but obvious that the entire world delves itself in the rich aroma of the brew. During the 20th century, the source of tea crops spread throughout the world, from Japan to Africa and South America. Towards the end of the 20th century, an additional rise in the western world’s tea consumption occurred and also in evidence was a demand for quality teas.

India, which is the largest producer of tea (off late, its position has been displaced by china) did not drink tea for pleasure till the British introduced the culture. It was primarily considered a medicinal herb and with the British establishing tea plantations along the borders of Assam, the tea culture was thereby introduced in India.

Whatever be the origin, tea has now spread across classes and ethnicity to every of the world and continues to evolve even as you read this.

ritu naiya

Tattoo History

Tattoos are a very old form of body art that go back to ancient times when many cultures used them. Some historians say that tattoos go back 5000 years, while others believe they go back well over 10000 years.

The earliest known evidence of tattooing goes back to markings found on the mummified human body that was discovered in the Alp Mountains in 1991. 5300 years old Oetzi – The Tyrolean Iceman, the oldest European mummified human, was tattooed. 58 tattoos, which appeared to serve more than a simple decorative function as some of them represent known pressure or acupuncture points, has been found on his body. The fact that he was tattooed was not a coincidence and it was probably perfectly normal for people of his time to be tattooed.

Ancient Egypt where wall paintings as old as 2000 BC have been suggesting the use of tattoos is today generally accepted as the cradle of tattoo art. Tattoos have been found on a small number of female mummies. The example of this are the mummified remains of a priestess of the goddess Hathor who lived some time between 2160 BC and 1994 BC.

When the Egyptians expanded their empire, the art of tattooing spread to the civilizations of Crete, Greece, Persia, and Arabia. Around 2000 BC it spread to China. The Mayans were also known to have tattoos, as were the Aztecs and Incas. Tattooing became widespread among Polynesian peoples, and among certain tribal groups in the Philippines, Borneo, Africa, North America, and Japan.

The purpose of tattooing varied from culture to culture. The Greeks for example used it for communication among spies. Romans use them to mark criminals and slaves. Tahitian tattoos served as rites of passage, telling the history of the wearer’s life. Tattoos served as symbols of religious and spiritual devotion, decorations for bravery, sexual lures and marks of fertility, pledges of love, amulets and talismans, protection, and so on.

Tattooing was rediscovered by Europeans when they came into contact with Polynesians and American Indians.

About the word – Tattoo

The word – tattoo originates from the Tahitian word ta-tau, meaning – to make a mark. Ta-tau means to mark or puncture the skin and is a reduplicated form of the word – ta – meaning – to strike. Tattauing or tattooing was a word introduced to Europe by Captain James Cook after his 1769 expedition to the South Pacific.

The history of tattoo began thousands of years ago and is as diverse as the people who had them. Today, tattooing is becoming more popular and accepted than it has ever been.

If you want to learn more about tattoos and are looking for cool tattoo designs, visit: Cool Design Tattoos

Ye Changhua, Zhejiang Pofi Entrepreneurial Founder Of The History Of Toys – Zhejiang Pofi

Such a small town in southwestern Zhejiang Province, has the fascination of her name?? Cloud; Zhejiang southwest of such a group of people, they Wooden Toys Commercial floating in the sea dark. A man has stood out among the many toys, always walk in front wooden preschool toys. Brilliant in others, he was too relaxed slightly Luo Ji; in others too busy, he had a loss a loss, but he maintains his insights, insisted sharp eye to find wood to play The new blue ocean industry.

2002 year, this young man called Ye Changhua, created from the cloud and Nature Education Toy Co., Ltd. (now Zhejiang Pofi Educational Toys Co., Ltd.), a series of children’s educational toy market. The establishment of a wooden toy company, which set up new companies every month “China wooden toys city” can not afford the slightest shock ripples. But the brave and sincere young man, in less than four years, had had their own wooden preschool education in China Educational Toys Industry dominance. In 2006, Pofi become the largest wooden children Educational Toys Manufacturers, and become Montessori, Froebel’s largest manufacturer.

Play to create a new blue ocean wood

Cloud and wooden toys started in the 70s of last century, has never been kind of processing play a minor development in the 21st century, has formed a complete industrial block economic model. Clouds and trees play three generations of human effort in exchange for a fruitful cloud and wooden play industry, the traditional toy market in the field when the competition heated up, the smart cloud and began looking for new living space.

6 years, Ye Changhua has chosen to toy industry market segments, and his preschool toys go more smoothly the way, but few know that the original share of good work Ye Changhua. “It was in the clouds and Cai Shuiju work, wages in high wage earners in the calculation, it is easy Well iron rice bowl.” Ye Changhua tone with a slightly relaxed over quit a stable and comfortable with the work to go around wanderings. Play this line into the wood before, Ye Changhua led the monthly wages of not less, holding the State to the iron rice bowl. But by nature good and strong that he has not really into the “easy get people to tears of life.” In 2002, Ye Changhua choose to come out, start!

“An emerging company, want to have occupied the same area of high ground in the enterprise and competition would be very difficult, it must follow the road segment.” Ye Changhua aware of the play as just touch wood industry companies, wants to grab a slice of the really big market is not easy, even if the company barely stand firm, but also because the earliest stage of development missed in the costs at a disadvantage.

Ye Changhua said that initially entered the ranks of wooden toys is spotted a large market, but the wood to play a serious product homogeneity makes him different from ordinary wood you want to find opportunities to play. How to find business opportunities, what to do, to how to do problems such as his for a long time. The beginning of the year, the nature of the enterprise is called the production calculations, small blackboards, and other simple preschool items, has remained at the edge of preschool toys. After an incubation period of one year experience, Ye Changhua finally encounter the first major customer.

2003 years, a South Korean businessmen through the network to find Ye Changhua, also brings a set of 13 articles of the international children’s toys. “ROK is not did not find someone else, but this degree of complexity for toy craft some of the large companies have shied away from. Mainlanders who have never seen such a toy, a surprise, so many parts, feel more is a combination of educational toys. I saw the happy, I said let me try it live. “faced with this set of early childhood education and entertainment to an international children’s toys, Ye Changhua finally found a different toy world .

Challenges Europe to teach toy 2007 Montessori Centennial Conference held in China and International Children’s education and academic exchange conference, Ye Changhua’s Pofi company favored by the international Montessori, was following the Netherlands, Italy, Japan, the world’s fourth mandate after the intention to . Little town of wood started to play business component to teach words against Europe Toy Company .

Ye Changhua proud to say, cloud and wooden toy industry, after 30 years of development already has a very sound industrial chain, from design to manufacturing, to play the finished painting wood, packaging, form a one-stop service sales, compared to wooden play abroad industry, clouds and wooden toys are well positioned in the cost. In the cloud and the simple wooden play materials do not even have hands-on, just upstream manufacturers can use a very cheap price from the acquisition of small manufacturers all the necessary commodities. Montessori teaching aids made in China and therefore a lot cheaper.

Ye Changhua said: “I teach the production of toys with their products together in the Montessori centennial congress of the display, the Europeans immediately alarmed. They are required to the International Montessori China during the exhibition business is not authorized quote conducted overseas. you want to, ah, why should the same products to expensive to buy? customers do not have to run me to? However, I am also strong. I ask the European commitment to fully withdraw from authorized traders of the market here in Southeast Asia , so I can promise not to make offer, even if their products cost more than my quote, I can ship by my prices to the Netherlands. ”

I am an expert from , usually analyzes all kind of industries situation, such as snap on cartridge , blast cabinet.

History of Franchising – Dawn of a New Era

The first person to introduce a franchise agreement similar to the ones we have today was Isaac Singer, founder of the Singer Company. His agreements were unique and laid the foundation for the contracts we see today. His sewing machines were big sellers, but what he needed was local people in each territory to service / repair machines and supply spare parts for them. It was too costly and cumbersome to provide this service from headquarters. He franchised it out and this method of doing business proved to be so successful that soon the local franchisees were given the ability to also sell new machines.

Motor Industry

The next big businesses to use this model were in the motor industry. Companies like General Motors sold franchises, so that they could expand their dealer network quickly and with less cost. Each franchisee was granted an exclusive territory so they knew that if they ran their business well, they would reap the rewards.

As other motor car manufacturers realized how fast General Motors dealership network was growing, they also started looking at franchising very closely and soon they launched their own franchises.

Fast Food

As other industries saw how successful this was in establishing a large network and selling more products, they started joining in. Fast Food reached the world quickly when McDonalds launched its franchise empire. Their fast food outlets were so successful that one can now buy a “Big Mac” in every corner of the globe!

Other companies like Kentucky Fried Chicken and Wimpy were also very quick to utilize the franchise model to reach new markets and gain more customers for their unique, profitable and inexpensive fast food products. Some of the early entrants made millions very quickly through operating multiple territories with these companies.

British Franchise Association

Now franchising is a recognized form of doing business worldwide. Each country has their own rules and regulations governing this method of doing business. In the UK it is the British Franchise Association (bfa) that provides new franchisors with a set of guidelines, rules and methods of conduct that they must follow before they can achieve BFA approved status.

International Franchise Association

In the USA, the International Franchise Association (IFA) helps regulate the industry and works closely with the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). You can find out more about franchise laws in the USA by visiting the Federal Trade Commission’s website. One of their aims is to protect America’s consumers from fraudulent business schemes and they have issued guidelines for interested parties.


From such small beginnings, franchising is now huge in the UK & USA! There are close to 150 thousand franchised establishments in the USA whilst in the UK there are thousands of established franchises and the numbers are expanding rapidly. The government is eager to help as it realises how much this contributes to the growth of the economy.

There are so many different types of franchises available that there is a business model to suit every entrepreneurs needs. Ranging from internet websites, retail outlets and work from home opportunities, there is one almost every field of business. If you are searching to start a new business, find a franchise that you will enjoy running and that suits your lifestyle.

Naz Daud is the founder of CityLocal. This Franchise Opportunity is for people who would like to work from home and be their own boss.

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Appreciating History through History

Change is inevitable in life due to constant innovations. This is probably why so many people nowadays obsessively take pictures of everything. Whenever someone sees something worth taking a picture of, they instantly look for a camera in an effort to preserve the moment.


Admittedly, some things in the past are not worth remembering. A number of devices and some fashion styles came and went because these are simply not worthy of anyone’s time. Although forgetting maybe appropriate in these instances, other cases must be re-examined carefully. Historical events and places are certainly worth revisiting to remind us of its lesson.


Many of us would claim that they do not have the time to review a certain history; this is why history books continue to gather dusts in bookshelves. However, not all is yet lost because history is everywhere. Architecture speaks of history, when a person sees pyramids, they may automatically think of the rise and fall of Egypt.


If one thinks about it carefully, even a historical event can be a possible reminder of another historical moment. Take for example the rise in houses for sale in Tulsa, Oklahoma during the oil boom. This could serve as a reminder of the sudden rise of Native American settlements after The Trail of Tears. Both these events saw a sudden rise in the number of people living in that particular area. At the same time it also reminds us of a darker period in history.


The infamous Trail of Tears brought about deaths to thousands of Native Americans. If moving nowadays is hard, imagine what it was like a hundred years ago. The natives back then had no houses in Tulsa they would automatically call their home when they traveled. Their migration caused them many sufferings because of the conditions that the colonizers forced upon them.


For one, the move was sudden. In the wake of the forced move, looters also became another problem as they ransacked the natives’ settlements. The timing of the move also took place in winter thus causing more hardship. Hunting for food was almost impossible during this season and hunger became inevitable. Whenever you get a chance to visit a foreign place, ask yourself of its history. Sometimes even something as simple as houses in Tulsa or a wall in Tuscany could yield many lessons.

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Indian Designer Bridal Sari are So Famous in World History

Our company has a designer sari, including India, Indian wedding saris, silk sarees, traditional saris and Indian embroidery, sari party wear, formal wear sari, the busy relief, casual sarees, printed saree sari wide range of Indian saris. Sari, bright mirror Ghagra Choli, colored sherwani and the traditional Salwar Kameez mesmerized many travellars. Indian bridal sari has come a long way from the Mughal court’s Wedding Saree. It is said that in history, this is because the Mughal era clothing. It took the position of the festive wardrobe. Ghagra Choli means a beautiful pleated skirts and tight tops with elegant odhni known or Dupatta Choli. Wedding in India, we can see the bride dressed in colorful display. Sherwani happen to be ancient costumes, one of which holds a leading position in India.

Design cuts on the nation, like a cut, straight shape of the work, umbrella cut, mermaid cut or cut fish. Fashion Sherwani cut up the fish are tight to the knee, and it requires a turning point. Different regions in India, the bride wore clothing, jewelry and various accessories. Punjabi bride to wear Salwar kameez, and Maharashtrian bride wears nine yards sari and the bride will always wear a Rajasthani Ghagra Choli. Wedding Sherwani is a wide variation, from traditional to modern Sherwani Sherwani range of use, from the designer Sherwani Ghagra Choli. There are many colors to choose from a wide range. Display of different styles are usually based on customer demand. Now is the most important purchase of the rights of the wedding ceremony, Ghagra Choli. It is best taken before installation tips tolerated. Now the bride is very lucky to pick before the wedding and wedding occasions, Ghagra Choli. Wedding Sherwani come in, such as tie and die work, silk embroidery work, Salma or naquashi work aari mission work of rich and vibrant range of silk and some towers, these wedding shows a rich collection of Sherwani Rajasthan process.

The most preferred Ghagra Choli saris and bridal which is also known Bridal Sarees. A Ghagra Choli along the skirt and with long or short, this is wear choli shirt sewing and assembly. The Ghagra Choli is worn on the waist and leaves open the back and abdomen. Choli is usually tight fitted to a perfect appearance. Dupatta is not mandatory, but it is certainly the beauty of embellishment. Dupatta appear in a different color and design beautiful and unique style, and draped. The latest style of draping his arms to wrap it round a unique look to mirror the work, silk, about the tower, Meenakari, zardosi, Kundan and Resham work seems simple and exciting.

Theindianwear shopping store for exclusive collection of Indian Designer Sarees. You will find the unique and exclusive collection of Sarees Online. Customer satisfaction is our aim.

A Look Back at the History of Horse Racing

No matter which major city from around the world it is that you will visit, you are bound to witness a horse racing event – Australia, Mauritius, New Zealand, USA, UK, Europe, the Middle Eastern countries, and a few Asian countries. This equestrian sport has been around for centuries, but how exactly did it start out?

Before delving deeper into that, let us first check on the most popular forms of this sport. One of the most typical sights that you will see in affluent communities is Thoroughbred racing. In Australia, Standardbred horses racing is more popular – just like in New Zealand. Quarter horses racing; and purebred Arabian horses racing or endurance racing are other forms of the sport.

Important Breakthroughs in the History

After learning about some of the basic facts about it, let us now check on its history as a sport. Take a look at the following important specific dates, periods and breakthroughs in this sport:

– 4500 BCE
As mentioned earlier, horses racing as a sport has existed for centuries now. It actually started during this period when horses first became domesticated animals. Back then, it was Central Asian tribesmen who trained the animals – and this was the signal for horses racing to become a sport of the privileged and leisured.

– 680 BCE
According to the roster of ancient Olympics during this period, two-horse and four-horses racing was added to the gaming events.

– 753 BCE
One of the best ways to trace back the history of a centuries-old sport like this is to consult the ancient books – and it was in the story of Romulus’ founding of Rome during this period that the mythical city-founded organized a series of horse race events. The goal was to distract Sabine men abducted the women.

– 12th Century
This is the time that the horse race that we know of today came to be. During the 12th century, a wave of battle-weary English men returned from the Crusades with Arabian horses. The endurance of these animals over the English ones is incomparable – so they were used in this sport.

– 1702-1714
Under the rule of Queen Anne, the first modern races where spectators bid on their bets started. It was in 1759 that the Jockey Club was formed.

– 1894
Just like the English’ British Jockey Club, the American Jockey Club was established in this year to set up rules for breeding racing horses.

– 1930s-1970s
In the United States, the sport of horses racing has had its ups and downs – but it was during these decades when the popularity of champion horses like Seabiscuit revived the life of the sport.

Today, horse race has become almost a national tradition – especially in the state of Louisiana. Whether you’re a true-blue horse race fan, if you’re in it to win money or if you’re simply interested with the different facets of the sport, nothing beats the feeling of knowing that you know exactly how the sport came about so that you would appreciate its origins even more.

Wanna learn more about History of Horse Racing Around the World? There are plenty of online resources that you can use to learn as much information as you can about the Treasure Island Resort and Casino and how you can increase your chances of winning should you decide to bet.

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History Of Philip Morris Company

Philip Morris, Esq., a tobacconist and importer of fine cigars founded Philip Morris in the mid 1800’s, by opening a shop on Bond Street in London (picture-attachment I). It’s first cigar was produced in 1854. Leopold Morris took over his brother’s business in 1873, when he passed. Leopold joined Joseph Grunebaum and created Philip Morris & Company and Grunebaum, Ltd. This partnership was separated two years later in 1887; the company now became Philip Morris & Co., Ltd.

In 1894 Philip Morris was for the most part controlled by William Curtis Thomason and his family, due to the company being taken over by creditors. Only six years after being taken over by creditors it was appointed tobacconist to King Edward VII. George Eckmeyer, imported and sold English-made cigarettes in the United States, since 1872, he was Philip Morris’ only agent in the U.S. He incorporated Philip Morris & Co., Ltd. in New York, in 1902. The ownership was split 50-50 between the British parent and the American partners. It sold the following brands: Philip Morris, Blues, Cambridge, Derby, and one named after the street its London factory was on, Marlborough.

Philip Morris purchased a factory in Richmond, Virginia in 1929, where it first began to manufacture its own cigarettes. Whelan’s Tobacco Products Corporation crashes shortly before the market in 1929; Rube Ellis, who calls in Leonard McKitterick and appoints him president, picks up Philip Morris. Only 3 years later Otway Hebron Chalkley was appointed president of Philip Morris and then became chairman of the company in 1945. Johnny Roventinni, was a bellhop who was discovered in 1933 in a New York Hotel and became the Philip Morris spokesperson for the next forty years.

The Axton-Fisher plant and facilities in Louisville, Kentucky was bought out by Philip Morris in 1944. An investor group headed by A.P Giannini, founder of the Bank of America, had bought the Axton-Fisher Tobacco Company in 1942. The company was unsuccessful in making their new Fleetwood cigarette a major contender to Lucky Strike, Camel, and Chesterfield, Axton-Fisher was sold to Philip Morris. Another Philip Morris plant was opened in Louisville, Kentucky in 1952. The first major affiliate outside of the U.S. was Philip Morris Ltd. (Australia).

The first company that Philip Morris acquired that was not in the tobacco industry was Milprint and Nicolet Paper Co. of Milwaukee in 1957. Combining Milprint, Inc.; Nicolette Paper Co.; and Polymer Industries, Inc. created the Industrial Products Division of Philip Morris in 1965. Their third president was also appointed in 1957, Joseph F. Cullman, III. He became chairman and CEO of Philip Morris Inc. 10 years later.

In 1964 the report by the Surgeon General on Smoking and Health was issued. The Federal Cigarette Labeling Act took effect in 1966 in the U.S. All cigarette companies were required to put a warning label on all cigarette packs.

Philip Morris Inc.; and three operating companies: Philip Morris Domestic; Philip Morris International; and Philip Morris Industrial, were created when Philip Morris decided to reorganize its corporate structure in 1967. Within one year of Philip Morris Domestic being created it changed its name to Philip Morris USA.

In 1969 fifty-three percent of The Miller Brewing Company (from W.R. Grace & Co.) based in Milwaukee, was acquired by Philip Morris. The other forty-seven percent of the Miller Brewing Company (from De Rance Foundation), was acquired by Philip Morris in 1970. Three years later the Miller Brewing Company moved from No.7 to No. 5 among U.S. brewers and it also broke record sales for that year. In 1975 Miller Brewing Company created a new lower-calorie beer category and introduced it nationally, by the end of 1975 Miller Brewing was up to No. 4, its net earnings were in the top $ 200 million. Only seven years after Miller was acquired by Philip Morris it was No. 3, among the U.S. brewers, it had once again achieved record sales for that year and it also achieved the largest annual barrelage increase in the beer industry. The company became No. 2 in the U.S. in 1977. In 1984 Milwaukee’s best beer in budget category is rolled out by Miller Brewing and in 1986 twenty-two states were introduced to Miller Genuine Draft .

In 1965 tobacco companies created an advertising code in which the company voluntarily and individually agrees not to advertise/promote cigarettes to young people and not to imply that cigarettes are healthy for you and that they are cool. Cigarette advertising was banned from television and radio all together in 1971. One year later all tobacco companies are required to put health warnings on all advertising, direct mail and point-of-sale materials.

In 1978 ninety-seven percent of the Seven-Up Company, was acquired by Philip Morris. Seven-Up became their sixth operating company. Pepsi Co. bought Seven-Up International from Philip Morris in 1986.

In 1978 George Weisman was appointed chairman and CEO of Philip Morris Inc. Also plans to construct a new 26-story corporate headquarters building in Midtown Manhattan, across from Grand Central Station, were announced. The company also posts record revenues ($ 6.6 billion) and profits ($ 409 million), for 25 consecutive years. In 1983 they reported record revenues ($ 13 billion) and earnings ($ 904 million), for the 30th consecutive year.

In 1984 Philip Morris Inc. got a new president and CEO, Hamish Maxwell.Philip Morris’ Inc. corporate framework was restructured in 1985 and Philip Morris Companies Inc., becomes the parent company of Philip Morris Inc. Philip Morris Cos. also went through the largest non-oil acquisition in U.S. history when they acquired General Foods Corp. for $ 5.6 billion. Philip Morris was the first U.S. company to line up most of the financing for an acquisition from non U.S. banks. Philip Morris’ revenues increased more than 50 percent to $ 25.4 billion, while net earnings reach $ 1.5 billion in 1986, due to the General Foods acquisition. Philip Morris once again set another record in 1988 when they acquired Kraft for $ 13.6 billion, a new record for the largest non-oil acquisition in U.S. history. As in their previous acquisition with General Foods almost all of the financing was provided by non U.S. banks.

In 1990 Kraft, Inc. and General Foods Corp. were combined to create Kraft General Foods, which was the largest Food Company in the U.S.Philip Morris Cos. revenues increased by 41 percent to nearly $ 45 billion; net earnings jumped 26 percent to nearly $ 3 billion. Fat-Free products in seven different categories were introduced by Kraft General Foods in 1990, which were more products than any other companies offered at the time. One-year later Capri Sun, Inc. was acquired by Kraft General Foods. In 1992 Jacks Frozen Pizza, Inc. was acquired by Kraft General Foods. They also acquired two Eastern Europe businesses, one of them being Hungary’s leading confectionery manufacturer, Csmege. The purchase by Kraft General Foods of RJR Nabisco (U.S. and Canadian ready-to-eat cold cereal) for $ 448 million was completed in 1993. In that same year, they also acquired the leading confectionery company in Scandinavia, for $ 1.3 billion and a leading manufacturer and marketer of confectionery in the U.K., for $ 295 million. Kraft Jacobs Suchard was formed when Kraft General Foods and Jacobs Suchard were combined. Once combined this newly created company acquired three businesses in Eastern Europe and in the former Soviet Union. Lastly, Bird’s Eye Frozen Vegetable business and Kraft General Foods U.S. ice cream business was sold.

In 1994 Philip Morris Cos. appoints its new chairman, William Murray and names Geoffrey C. Bible president and CEO. Only one year later Geoffrey C. Bible became chairman and CEO of Philip Morris Cos.

In 1995 there was a reorganization of Kraft General Foods. The reorganization created Kraft Foods Inc., which consisted of one operating company with category based divisions. Entenmann’s baked goods was one of the three businesses that Kraft decided to sell off. One year later the Taco Bell line of grocery products was sold to Kraft Foods. An Internet site for “good food and good food ideas”, was launched by Kraft Foods, it was called the Kraft Interactive Kitchen.The Jello-O gelatin brand 100th anniversary was celebrated by Kraft Foods in 1997.

In 1998 the tobacco industry reached an agreement with the state Attorneys General, this put an end to all of the nationwide Medicaid lawsuits that were filed against it. The companies agreed to pay about $ 200 billion to the 46 states over a 25 year period. They also consented to a number of marketing restrictions, one of the being taking down tobacco billboards and stopping the distribution of tobacco branded promotional items, like t-shirts and baseball caps. Part of the settlement agreement provides $ 1.5 billion to research and programs that are aimed at youth smoking prevention. Philip Morris requested that each state that is receiving part of the settlement dedicate a considerable amount the settlement to youth prevention smoking programs.Philip Morris itself has created a $ 100 million Youth Smoking Prevention program that includes television commercials. Philip Morris is also concentrating its efforts in other areas such as feeding the hungry, helping victims of domestic violence and disaster relief. Over the past four decades Philip Morris has donated over $ 500 million to charity.

In 1999 Philip Morris launched its corporate website ( Philip Morris has been working hard to change the public perceptions the company created by its silence. In keeping

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