African Foods ? A Brief Commentary On South African Culinary And Its History

South Africa has an expansive range of food. South African culture is diverse and rich and this shows in their wide array of foods. The soil by itself is great for crops and the great environment and sunshine makes them thrive.

South Africa is called the “Rainbow Nation”, a phrase stated by Desmond Tutu, the Archbishop and soon adopted by the President Nelson Mandela, that smybolizes the range of the country’s culture and people. This variety is also spilt on to the South African cuisine, which encompasses cooking practised by indigenous people including the Khoisan, Xhosa and Sotho speaking people, settler cuisine devised by the people of Afrikaner and British origin, the culinary of the Cape Malay folks (those who came from Malaysia and Indonesia. Then there is the cuisine of people of Indian descent (influenced by Indian cuisine). Furthermore, South African cuisine has taken influences from that of nearby countries, and this is clearly evident in a few dishes that hold traces of Portuguese cuisine – Angola and Mozambique both have been former Portuguese colonies.

Some famous South African delicacies include:

– Biltong – dried, salty meat (beef, chicken or even ostrich), related to jerky.

– Bobotie – Bobotie is a dish from Cape Malay that is similar to meatloaf with raisins, and laced with baked egg on top. The dish is served with a variety of accompaniments such as sambals, yellow rice, coconut, banana slices and chutney.

– Frikkadel – Meatballs with eggs, bread, onions and spices.

– Mealie bread – A sweetened bread baked with sweetcorn.

– Potjiekos – A stew containing meat, vegetables, rice or potato, with wine or water added. Pasta & fruits are sometimes added.

– Sosatie – A Cape Malay dish consisting of mutton marinated with onions, chillies, curry leaves, garlic and tamarind sauce, placed on skewers and later grilled or fried.

– Tomato bredie (Afrikaans: Tamatiebredie) – Mutton stew, seasoned with cardamom, chillies, cinnamon, cloves and ginger.

– Waterblommetjiebredie – Meat stewed using Cape Pondweed flowers.

– Vetkoek – Dough, filled with ground (minced) meat, mixed with honey and syrup, and later deep-fried.

– Malva Pudding – An apricot-flavored sponge-like dessert.

– Melktert – Melktert is Afrikaans for “milk tart”. This dessert consists of a pastry crust possessing a creamy filling made from milk, flour, eggs and sugar. Cinnamon is sometimes scattered on the surface.

For more details on some great African recipes please go to african recipes. You may also take a peek at Pakistani recipes by visiting Pakistani Recipe

A Brief History of Aircraft Carriers

An aircraft carrier acts as a seagoing airbase. The aircraft carrier was designed for one thing; it was designed for deploying and recovering aircrafts. It allows the navy to go great distances and not have to rely on local bases to for staging aircraft missions.

Aircrafts have come a long way when they first started to use them they were used to deploy balloons. Now they are nuclear warships that are able to carry dozens of fixed and rotary wing aircraft.

In the article we are going to discuss how the aircrafts have evolved. From the first aircraft to the strong ones they are today. The first ships that deployed a manned aircraft were the balloon carriers. They were used during the nineteenth and early twentieth century. During this time it was mainly used for just observation.

The development of flat top vessels produced the first large fleet ships. During World War II was when the need for the these type of ships. There were ships that were built just for WWII. For example one of them was the Escort aircraft carriers and the USS Bogue. Some of these ships were built just for carriers, but most were just converted. They were converted from merchant ships as a stop -gap measure so that they could provide air support for the convoys and amphibious invasions.

There were light aircraft carriers it was a larger more militarized version of the escort carrier. The light aircrafts had a great advantage to the escort carriers they could carry the same size air groups and they were also able to move at a higher speed.

There were Merchant carriers these could launch but they could not for retrieve fighter aircraft from an attack. The merchant carrier was used as an emergency measure during the World War II. There were other emergency methods that was used which was they used cargo carrying merchant ships with flight decks.

The modern Navy now uses the aircraft carriers as the “capital ship” of the fleet. When before the battleship was considered the “capital ship”. Having the ability to have such great power in the air is a great tool to have during the time of war. This became really popular during WWII. Most of the aircraft carriers are powered by nuclear reactors and form the core of a fleet designed to operate far from home.

Since then the aircraft carriers have only gotten bigger and stronger. Today there is Supercarriers which can now able to displace seventy five thousand tons or greater.

Navy apparel, Navy clothing

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A Brief History of Light Bulbs

The along with the wheel, the light bulb is one of the worlds’ most important inventions and if you like seeing at night more than driving, then you will no doubt view the light bulb without question as THE most important.

The light bulb as we know it today is a product of the work of more than 10 notable inventors from Germany, the UK and the USA over a period of 182 years.

It all started with an English Chemist, Sir Humphry Davy in 1809 who noticed that by passing electricity from a battery though a carbon strip, it glowed. This was the making of the first arc lamp. Humphry died in 1829, around one hundred and twenty years before seeing the artificial lighting he was so instrumental in inventing, light up the trenches of World War 2.

About 11 years after Davy, another English inventor, Warren De la Rue created a light tube by passing an electrical current though a platinum filament contained in an evacuated tube. While a successful model, this was highly impractical for widespread use due to the cost of the platinum filament.

In 1854, all hats were off in the direction of Germany. Henricg Globel, who by profession was a watchmaker created the first true light bulb, using a carbonised bamboo filament placed in a glass bulb. The term ‘globe’ in ‘globe light bulbs’ could have possibly been named after Henricg, although I am not at liberty to say.

Another German, Herman Sprengel provided another breakthrough, inventing the mercury vacuum pump making a strong vacuum inside the bulb possible. This allows a longer life as it removes the effects of oxidation on the filament.

The most famous of all the inventors who had a hand in the development of the Light Bulb and often (wrongly) handed the crown of inventing the light bulb is the American inventor Thomas Alva Edison who went on to pioneer other notable inventions such as the phonograph and the kinetophone (talking motion picture). For involvement in the development of the light bulb he invented a carbon filament that burned for 40hrs which he put in an oxygen-less bulb. By 1880 he had managed to extend the life of his bulb to over 1200 hours using a bamboo derived filament.

Tungsten popped its head into the light bulb world in 1906 when the General Electric company of America patented their use. At the time however, these filaments were costly.

In 1910, an American Physicist by the name of William David Coolidge (or William to his friends) came up with an improved method of making the tungsten filaments. His improved method greatly extended the life of existing filaments and made them much more economical.

The light bulb as we know it was made and continues to light up the dark nights.

In 1991 Phillips invented a way of increasing the life of a bulb to well over 60,000 hours. That’s almost 7 full years of illumination. Even more if you switch it off when you go to bed.

You can choose from a large selection of light bulbs at First Light Direct

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